(1585 - 1642)
Cardinal Richelieu was a French nobleman and clergyman at the court of King Louis XIII. Born in 1585 in Paris into an aristocratic family as the third son of Lord Richelieu, who worked as a guard captain for Henry IV.
He studied at the College de Navarre in Paris and theology at the College de Calvi. In 1607 he became a bishop when he was only 21 years old.
Young Richelieu was very ambitious. He gained high reputation as an excellent speaker and a strong defender of Roman Catholicism. In 1622 he became a cardinal. In 1624 he became a member and soon after elected as a head of the royal council and became the de facto ruler of France. His major accomplishments were the reform of the army and navy, a successful suppression of the revolt and generally contributed to increased political influence of France in Europe. He died of pleurisy in 1942